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This importance of shop processes in machine construction is generally realised by proprietors, but not thoroughly understood in all of its bearings; an apprentice may notice the continual effort that is made to augment the production of engineering-works, which is the same thing as shortening the processes.广西快三开奖结果可以查询吗之际 西我 Water-wheels, or water-power, as a mechanical subject, is apparently quite disconnected with shop manipulation, but will serve as an example for conveying general ideas of force and motion, and, on these grounds, will warrant a more extended notice than the seeming connection with the general subject calls for. Draughting, or drawing, as it is more commonly called, is a means by which mental conceptions are conveyed from one person to another; it is the language of mechanics, and takes the place of words, which are insufficient to convey mechanical ideas in an intelligible manner. 5. Every part laid down has something to govern it that may be termed a "base"—some condition of function or position which, if understood, will suggest size, shape, and relation to other parts. By searching after a base for each and every part and detail, the draughtsman proceeds upon a regular system, continually maintaining a test of what is done. Every wheel, shaft, screw or piece of framing should be made with a clear view of the functions it has to fill, and there are, as before said, always reasons why such parts should be of a certain size, have such a speed of movement, or a certain amount of bearing surface, and so on. These reasons or conditions may be classed as expedient, important, or essential, and must be estimated accordingly. As claimed at the beginning, the designs of machines can only in a limited degree be determined by mathematical data. Leaving out all considerations of machine operation with which books have scarcely attempted to deal, we have only to refer to the element of strains to verify the general truth of the proposition.
Every operation in a pattern-shop has reference to some operation in the foundry, and patterns considered separately from moulding operations would be incomprehensible to any but the skilled. Next to designing and draughting, pattern-making is the most intellectual of what may be termed engineering processes—the department that must include an exercise of the greatest amount of personal judgment on the part of the workman, and at the same time demands a high grade of hand skill.重庆时时彩怎么看走势落下 体这 (1.) How may mechanical be distinguished from civil engineering?—(2.) What test can be applied to determine the progress made in any branch of engineering?—(3.) What are some of the conditions which prevent the use of constants in machine construction?—(4.) Is mechanical engineering likely to become more exact and scientific?—(5.) Name some of the principal branches of mechanical engineering.—(6.) Which is the most extensive and important?
2分六合彩是骗局吗在无 仿佛 Grinding, no doubt, if traced to the principles that lie at the bottom, is nothing more than a cutting process, in which the edges employed are harder than any material that can be made into cutters, the edges firmly supported by being imbedded into a mass as the particles of sand are in grindstones, or the particles of emery in emery wheels. Shaping machines as machine tools occupy a middle place between planing and slotting machines; their movements correspond more to those of slotting machines, while the operation of the tools is the same as in planing. Some of the advantages of shaping over planing machines for certain kinds of work are, because of the greater facilities afforded for presenting and holding small pieces, or those of irregular shape; the supports or tables having both vertical and horizontal faces to which pieces may be fastened, and the convenience of the mechanism for adjusting and feeding tools. The principle upon which steam-engines operate may be briefly explained as follows:—
It is best, when an apprentice thinks of entering an engineering establishment, to inquire of its character from disinterested persons who are qualified to judge of the facilities it affords. As a rule, every machine-shop proprietor imagines his own establishment to combine all the elements of an engineering business—and the fewer the facilities for learners, usually the more extravagant this estimate; so that opinions in the matter, [24] to be relied upon, should come from disinterested sources.快三开奖直播网址是危险 子都 Fourth. Machinery of transportation. Vertical handling, although it consumes more power, as a rule costs less, is more convenient, and requires less room than horizontal handling, which is sure to interfere more or less with the constructive operations of a workshop. In machine fitting there is generally a wrong estimate placed upon the value of ground floors, which are no doubt indispensable for the heaviest class of work, and for the heaviest tools; but with an ordinary class of work, where the pieces do not exceed two tons in weight, upper floors if strong are quite as convenient, if there is proper machinery for handling material; in fact, the records of any establishment, where cost accounts are carefully made up, will show that the expense of fitting on upper floors is less than on ground floors. This is to be accounted for by better light, and a removal of the fitting from the influences and interference of other operations that must necessarily be carried on upon ground floors. Upon entering the shop, a learner will generally, to use a shop phrase, "be introduced to a hammer and chisel;" he will, perhaps, regard these hand tools with a kind of contempt. Seeing other operations carried on by power, and the machines in charge of skilled men, he is likely to esteem chipping and filing as of but little importance and mainly intended for keeping apprentices employed. But long after, when a score of years has been added to his experience, the hammer, chisel, and file, will remain the most crucial test of his hand skill, and after learning to manipulate power tools of all kinds in the most thorough manner, a few blows with a chipping hammer, or a half-dozen strokes with a file, will not only be a more difficult test of skill, but one most likely to be met with.”
The importance of a beginner learning to divide what he has to learn into these two departments of special and general, has the advantage of giving system to his plans, and pointing out that part of his education which must be acquired in the workshop and by practical experience. The time and opportunities which might be devoted to learning the technical manipulations of a foundry, for instance, would be improperly spent if devoted to metallurgic chemistry, because the latter may be studied apart from practical foundry manipulation, and without the opportunity of observing casting operations.pc28走势图情经 质性 Machines may be defined in general terms as agents for converting, transmitting, and applying power, or motion and force, which constitute power. By machinery the natural forces are utilised, and directed to the performance of operations where human strength is insufficient, when natural force is cheaper, and when the rate of movement exceeds what the hands can perform. The term "agent" applied to machines conveys a true idea of their nature and functions. On the other hand, the amount that an apprentice may earn by his labour is governed by his natural capacity, and by the interest he may feel in advancing; also from the view he may take of the equity of his engagement, and the estimate that he places upon the privileges and instruction that he receives. In many branches of business, where the nature of the operations carried on are measurably uniform, and have not for a long time been much affected by changes and improvements, the conditions of apprenticeship are more easy to define; but mechanical engineering is the reverse of this, it lacks uniformity both as to practice and what is produced. To estimate the actual value of apprentice labour in an engineering-work is not only a very difficult matter, but to some extent impracticable even by those of long experience and skilled in such investigations; and it is not to be expected that a beginner will under such circumstances be able to understand the value of such labour: he is generally led to the conclusion that he is unfairly treated, that his services are not sufficiently paid for, and that he is not advanced rapidly enough. In regard to the character or quality of wood patterns, they can be made, as already stated, at greater or less expense, and if necessary, capable of almost any degree of endurance. The writer has examined patterns which had been used more than two hundred times, and were apparently good for an equal amount of use. Such patterns are expensive in their first cost, but are the cheapest in the end, if they are to be employed for a large number of castings. Patterns for special pieces, or such as are to be used for a few times only, do not require to be strong nor expensive, yet with patterns, as with everything else pertaining to machinery, the safest plan is to err on the side of strength.”
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